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Perceived impact of academic stress on academic performance among undergraduate nursing students of university of Jos
Cletus Okpe Daniel, Abraham Dare Ajayi, Oluwatoyin Abayomi Ogunyewo, Daniel Kwambe Ajio, Emmanuel Andy, Emmanuel Oyedele, Grace Daniel, Gimba Musa Solomon, Alfred Bala Haruna, Nanle Joseph Gusen
Jan-Jun 2018, 7(11):8-15
Introduction: This research study was carried out to assess the perceived impact of stress on academic performance among undergraduate nursing students of the University of Jos. Research Design: The research design was a correlational descriptive study. Sampling was not needed since the entire population of 208 were used as participants for the study. An instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, i.e., frequency, mean and percentage, and data presented in tables. Results: Results revealed that the common stressors found among undergraduate students and their (stressors') degree of influence on academic performance are finance; M = 3.5, exam; M = 3.5 among others had a strong influence, course load; M = 2.7 continuous assessment; 2.8 mean among others had a mild influence while overcrowded classroom and others fairly influence nursing students academic performance. The academic performance of undergraduate nursing students was satisfactory with 189 (81.7%) of the students having a cumulative grade point average between second class upper and second class lower. Nursing students perceived stress to have a negative impact on their academic performance. Being optimistic, having a relaxed state of mind were among other methods used by nursing students to cope with stress. Conclusion and Recommendation: The researcher concluded that stress is perceived by undergraduate nursing students of the University of Jos, to have a negative impact on their academic performance and recommended that the university/department introduce stress coping skills in the planning of undergraduate curriculum among others. Nursing students recommended that lecturers should be more friendly; financial burden be reduced on students, among others, as ways to help them cope with stress.
  31,046 7 -
Medicolegal analysis of sexual assault victims in Benin, Nigeria
Chukwuemeka Charles Nwafor, Wilson Oberaifo Akhiwu
Jan-Jun 2019, 8(13):10-17
Aim: The aim of this study, done in a police clinic, was to understand sexual assault (SA) victim characteristics. Subjects and Methods: All SA cases seen at the Police Clinic, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 146 cases were seen involving 144 females and 2 males. Age group of 11–15 years was mostly affected (37%). The majority of SA victims (72.6%) had no sexual activity before the assault. In 95.9% of cases, no contraceptive was used. The perpetrators were known in 52.7% of cases, and most of them (20.5%) were cotenants. There was penovaginal penetration in 91.8% of situations, with verbal threats been the most common means of subjugation. About 76.9% of SA occurred during the daytime. The hymen in 56.2% of cases showed signs of fresh injury and, in 17.9% of cases, it was intact. Seminal acid phosphatase was seen in 29.6% of cases. Conclusion: SA victims should present very early so that adequate evidence will be collected. Modern diagnostic kits including DNA profiling are needed so that perpetrators can be convicted beyond doubt, while psychological care of victims should be included in medical care.
  12,426 0 -
Subseptate uterus causing recurrent miscarriage
Onyekachi Okechukwu Moemenam, Chijioke Okeudo
Jan-Jun 2019, 8(13):40-42
Subseptate uterus is a variety of congenital uterine malformations that can result in recurrent pregnancy wastages. A high index of suspicion with the application of radiological imaging by experienced personnel will go a long way in achieving the early diagnosis of this uncommon condition. This was a case of 29-year-old Para 0+4 who presented with recurrent miscarriages and was diagnosed of having subseptate uterus using histerosalpingogram, but she declined corrective surgery.
  12,271 0 -
Prevalence and sonographic patterns of uterine fibroids in Northern Nigeria
Yusuf Lawal, Ishaku Bala Yaro, Ayyuba Rabiu, Richard Emmanuel
Jan-Jun 2019, 8(13):24-29
Background: Uterine fibroids are benign tumors which commonly affect women of reproductive age. Ultrasound scan is regarded as the commonly available method of diagnosing and growth monitoring of uterine fibroids. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of uterine fibroids, their sonographic pattern, and their association with body mass index (BMI) among patients undergoing pelvic ultrasound scan. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted among patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained from the hospital's Ethics Committee. Information such as sociodemographic characteristics was recorded in the questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Mindray Digital Ultrasound Imaging System (Model DC6; Shenzhen Mindray Biomed Electronics, Shenzhen, China) was used for the study. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20 (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). A test of association was computed on the categorical variables using Fisher's exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of uterine fibroids was 12.1%. Age group of 36–40 years had the highest number of patients with fibroids (25 [29.8%]). Multiple fibroids of more than two nodules were the findings in almost half of the participants (41 [48.8%]). There was no statistically significant association between the number of fibroid nodules and parity P (Fishers') = 0.474 or BMI P (Fishers') = 0.181. Age group was statistically associated with the number of fibroid nodules P (Fishers') = 0.030. Conclusion: The prevalence of uterine fibroids in this study was high. Mixed echo pattern of fibroid nodules was the predominant finding in this study.
  11,104 9 -
Alcohol use among secondary school students in Nigeria: A worrisome trend
Adewoyin Adejoke Osonuga, Bola Deborah Ogunmoroti, Ayokunle Osonuga, Adebayo Da'costa
Jul-Dec 2019, 8(14):54-59
Background: Alcohol abuse is a global health problem, resulting in a spectrum of biopsychosocial and medical consequences. In recent times, there has been a surge in the number of adolescents who have been exposed to alcohol abuse and its attending consequences. This study aimed at identifying the reasons for alcohol abuse and assessed the knowledge of students about the harmful effects of alcohol. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study involving 384 students who were selected by convenience sampling after ethical approval and consent was granted. A pretested questionnaire was administered to get basic biodata. This questionnaire also had five-scale questions to elicit other variables of interest. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Results: 66% of respondents reported to have taken alcohol before, at ceremonies or while hanging out with friends. Alcohol caused problems with the law and family problems in about half of the respondents. Assault and high-risk sexual behaviors were not uncommon (5% and 12%, respectively). Most respondents knew of the consequences of alcohol abuse but gave reasons for taking alcohol; social media (96.2%), fun (94.8%), coping with stress of school (73.9%), and adolescence (93.8%) were common among other reasons. Conclusion: Alcohol problems are common in our secondary schools, stakeholders should be aware of this. We recommend expert support for students, especially in secondary schools, so that we can save the next generation from self-destructing.
  11,009 0 2
Intimate partner violence among women attending a general practice clinic in Nigeria
Ehichoya D Oseyemwen, Ndudi K Oseyemwen, Bawo O James, Osahon Enabulele, Joseph Ajokpaniovo, Afolabi J Adewole, Leonard A Atsikidi, Oluwabunmi E Egharevba
Jan-Jun 2019, 8(13):1-9
Background: There has been an increasing concern about the magnitude of violence against women, especially pregnant women in Nigeria. The long-term health impact of violence on the victims as well as the difficulty in directly associating violence with the health outcome of the victims is understudied in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine associations between physical health outcomes and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adult females attending a general practice clinic. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 360 participants recruited using systematic sampling methods. A modified Abuse Assessment Screen tool was used to screen for IPV and the data were analyzed using version 21 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: The prevalence of IPV in this study was 80%. Sexual abuse had the highest prevalence (56.4%), followed by physical and psychological abuse which had the prevalence of 46.7% and 31.9%, respectively. The common risk factors for IPV observed in this study included younger age of respondents, having a large family size, being employed, and partner's educational status. The common comorbidities found among the respondents experiencing IPV included hypertension, pelvic inflammatory disease, peptic acid disorders, osteoarthritis, and depressive illnesses. Alcohol use by partners was the most common perceived reason given by the respondents for their partners' perpetration of IPV. Conclusion: IPV as a part of violence against women remains very high and underreported in our society. The study showed a strong association between IPV and hypertension; this should be of interest to health-care practitioners and researchers.
  8,867 2 -
Clinical success of fixed space maintainers: Conventional band and loop versus fiber-reinforced composite loop space maintainer
Reena Rani, Sanjay Chachra, Abhishek Dhindsa, Manu Sharma
Jan-Jun 2020, 9(15):1-6
Aim: The study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of two fixed space maintainers and conventional band and loop and fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) space maintainers. Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 6–8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. Band and loop space maintainer was cemented in one quadrant, and in the other quadrant, FRCR space maintainer was placed. All the patients were recalled at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 9th months, and retention of both the types of space maintainers was evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The observations thus obtained were subjected to the statistical analysis using the ANOVA test and post-hoc Tukey test. Results: The retention of the FRCR space maintainer was found to be superior to that of the band and loop space maintainer, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: FRCR (Ribbond) space maintainers can be considered alternative to the conventional band and loop space maintainers.
  8,254 2 -
Claude syndrome: A report of two cases and review of literature
S Sheetal, M Madhusudanan, Reji Thomas, P Byju
Jan-Jun 2018, 7(11):29-31
Claude syndrome refers to the association of unilateral oculomotor and/or trochlear palsy of midbrain origin with contralateral ataxia. Detailed description of this syndrome is rare, partly due to the rarity of its occurrence. This is a report of two patients who presented to us with features suggestive of Claude syndrome.
  8,021 2 -
Umbilical cord thrombosis, a cause of intra-uterine fetal demise: A case study
Ezinne Chimdi Iwunze, Charles Ikenna Iwunze
Jan-Jun 2018, 7(11):32-34
Umbilical vein thrombosis accompanies umbilical cord abnormalities that cause blood vessel ectasia and lead to perinatal mortality. The precise diagnosis and management remains an unsolved puzzle to clinicians. This is to report a case of umbilical cord thrombosis in a patient with intrauterine fetal demise and propose an addendum to the current management. Early detection of umbilical cord abnormalities, intensive fetal monitoring, prompt intervention, and preemptive delivery may prevent perinatal mortality.
  7,741 0 -
Important ethical issues in the surgical separation of the conjoined twins jane and may that consequentialism cannot be satisfactorily dealt with
Abdulkabir Ayansiji Ayanniyi
Jul-Dec 2017, 6(10):35-40
Conjoined twins are interesting human malformation. Their peculiar nature necessarily generates interests across divides. Ethical issues were generated by the surgical separation of the conjoined twins Jane and May. The consequentialist would argue that the separation has overall good. Nevertheless, a consequentialist would not be able to justify some important ethical issues arising from such surgical separation.
  7,735 0 -
Impact of innovative pedagogical teaching methods on students' academic performance
Anjali Mahajan, Kanica Kaushal
Jul-Dec 2017, 6(10):41-44
Background: Microteaching techniques uses various interactive and multimodal strategies to create a more engaging classroom setting compared to the traditional didactic lecturing methods. The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of innovative pedagogical teaching methods on students' academic performance. Subjects and Methods: It was a cross-sectional interventional study conducted among seventy students of basic and post basic B.Sc. Nursing course. Seventy students were evaluated for effectiveness of two different teaching techniques on students' performance over a series of five lectures; each lecture being divided into two sessions. The first session involved delivering the lecture with the aid of power point presentation only. The second session consisted of delivering the lecture using various interactive teaching techniques. At the end of five lectures, feedback was taken from students regarding the quality of lectures. Results: The quantitative analysis showed that the mean posttest scores obtained from the students were significantly higher than the pretest scores in all the five sessions. The qualitative assessment of the study based on feedback received from the students' also pointed toward better attainment of knowledge and greater satisfaction levels. Conclusion: It is mandatory to inculcate interactive learning into regular classroom teaching to have better understanding.
  7,399 1 -
Assessment of family functionality status among patients with mental illness at a tertiary health facility in rivers state, Nigeria
Chukwuma Ugochukwu Okeafor, Donald Chidozie Chukwujekwu
January-June 2017, 6(9):1-5
Context: Family functionality is the extent to which the patterns of family are effective and useful in achieving cordial relationship. A functional family relationship is vital for coping with mental stress. Aim: This study aimed to assess the family functionality status of patients with mental illness. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional design was employed in this study. Patients with mental illness were selected through systematic sampling from the mental health outpatient clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Rivers State. Materials and Methods: Family functionality status was assessed using the family adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve questionnaire, a validated and study instrument. Statistical Analysis Used: Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Predictive Analytics Software version 20. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study consists of 151 patients, with a male–to-female ratio of 1:1.2. Functional family relationship was reported in 99 (65.6%) patients while severely and moderately dysfunctional relationships were noted in 12 (7.9%) and 40 (26.5%) patients, respectively. The prevalence of dysfunctional family relationship was highest among patients with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (58.3%). The differences in proportions of family functionality status across the diagnostic categories were not significant. Conclusions: The presence of dysfunctional family status among patients with mental illness in this study highlights the need to implement family therapies to promote functional family relationship in patients with mental illness.
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Choosing dentistry as a career: A matter of concern – a survey
Himanshu Bhagwani, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Naveen S Yadav
January-June 2017, 6(9):16-20
Background: Choosing career is one of the most important decisions in life. Choosing dentistry as a career is one of the difficult and stressful decisions among dental students in India due to the uncertainty of the career and fear of unemployment. Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study is to investigate the motives behind choosing dentistry as a career option and as well as to determine the awareness regarding the future prospectus of dentistry. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. A questionnaire comprising of both close- and open-ended questions were distributed among the 208 undergraduate, intern, graduate, postgraduate, and lecturers in dental colleges in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The response to the questionnaire so obtained was analyzed. Results: Data were analyzed using counts and percentages. Nearly 44% dentist were not satisfied with their income, 60% opted for dentistry because they could not secure a medical seat, 41% of budding dentist do not want to go for postgraduation because of less government seats and more fees in private colleges. The drastic result is that 31% dentist interested in changing the profession. Conclusion: The present scenario can be uplifted by increasing the Postgraduate seats and decreasing the Undergraduate seats in all dental colleges and to increase the job opportunities by creating more jobs in governmental sector. Counseling cell in each and every dental college to combat the stress among dental students should be established.
  6,585 0 -
Knowledge and uptake of HIV counseling and testing in faith-based school: Case study of REMI School, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria
Rabi Susan Adelaiye, Mustapha Abubakar Jamda
Jul-Dec 2017, 6(10):52-56
Introduction: HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is the entry point to HIV prevention, care, and support services, especially among the adolescent group who are very vulnerable. This study is to assess the knowledge and uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services among secondary school students in Gwagwalada, Abuja. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using eligibility criteria in selecting the 89 students in the study. Information was obtained through the use of pretested self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and presented in frequency and proportions. Results: Out of the 89 students surveyed, 45 (50.6%) were aware of HCT. Electronic media and friends/relations representing 33.3% each were the major sources of HCT information. Respondents had little knowledge of the purpose of HCT. A total of 78 (87.6%) were willing to be tested; the uptake of free HCT services offered was 5 (5.6%). Of the 11 (12.4%) not willing to be tested, 7 (63.6%) were afraid of positive result and 4 (36.4%) because of associated stigma. Conclusion: Despite 50.6% of respondents been aware of HCT and majority willing to have HCT, uptake of free HCT offered was 5.6%. HCT services should be extended to secondary schools as a matter of urgency to “catch them young.” Intensive awareness targeted at this group of youths should be carried out in environments they would be comfortable and free to accept the knowledge and services provided in adolescent-friendly manner to enhance uptake.
  6,575 0 -
A synopsis of human pandemics
Esther L Ismaila, Bashiru Omeiza Ismaila, Simeon Omale, David M Umar, David Danjuma Shwe, Nathan Yakubu Shehu
Jan-Jun 2021, 10(17):7-13
Pandemics have been an important part of human history and have caused widespread morbidity and mortality as well as economic devastation in their wake. As the world struggles to contain its latest pandemic coronavirus disease 2019, it is important to look at all the human pandemics that have been recorded. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for, all in English language literature, using the search words “pandemics” and “history of pandemics.” Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Available literature showed pandemics are a recurrent feature in human existence globally. Detailed description of effects of pandemics in Africa were few. The pandemics were classified according to the periods they occurred. From 430BC to 2020AD, different epidemics largely caused by bacteria and viruses have affected the human. With the recurrent patterns of earlier pandemics and advances in international travel, it is obvious that for the foreseeable future, pandemics will remain a global health challenge.
  6,515 4 -
Diabetes and sleep
RS Reng, GA Onwuegbuzie
Jan-Jun 2021, 10(17):1-6
Sleep has often been thought of as a “restorative” process for the mind and the body; however, it has been shown that it also directly affects many metabolic and hormonal processes. Sleep which is a key factor in physiological restitution also modulates the metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems and thus has medical implications which include decreased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Reduction in the time available for sleep is a hallmark of modern society which has developed during the past few decades with increase in the time available for work and leisure, often viewed as harmless and efficient. In normal, healthy individuals, glucose tolerance varies across the day, with total sleep loss or even a 2-h reduction of sleep/night for 1 week there is increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and low grade inflammation, a condition known to predispose to insulin resistance and diabetes. Sleep deprivation is associated with disturbances in the secretion of the counter regulatory hormones such as growth hormone and cortisol. Elevated evening cortisol levels can lead to morning insulin resistance, while the sympathetic nervous system inhibits insulin release while the parasympathetic system stimulates it, thus leading to elevated glucose levels. Adults are sleeping less and less in our society. Yet sleep is no longer thought of as strictly a restorative process for the body. The importance of sleep for metabolic function and specifically glucose homeostasis is now widely accepted, as many studies have shown a correlation between sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality and an increased risk of diabetes.
  6,351 6 -
Evaluation of hysterosalpingographic findings of patients presenting with infertility in Kano, Northern Nigeria
Jamilu Tukur, Safiya Usman Zahradeen, Idris Usman Takai, Mohammed Abba Suwaid, Usman Muhammad Ibrahim
Jan-Jun 2021, 10(17):14-18
Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a minimally invasive tool with reasonable specificity and sensitivity which is effective in diagnosing tubal factor infertility. Objective: This study determines the pattern of infertility, the risk factors for infertility in women presenting for HSG, and documented HSG findings among women with infertility at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of HSG findings among infertile women who presented for HSG between January 2016 and December 2018 in AKTH. The register for HSG was reviewed at the Radiology Department, and information obtained from the record included the age, file number, and the outcome of HSG. The corresponding files of the patients were then retrieved from the Central Medical Records Department. Information obtained from the case notes were age, parity, type of infertility, and risk factor for infertility. Results: During the study period, there were 400 cases of infertility who presented to the gynecological clinic, out of which 250 patients presented for HSG. One hundred and forty-four case notes were retrieved giving a retrieval rate of 57%. Majority of the women who had HSG during this study were aged between 26 and 30 years. Secondary infertility was predominant over primary infertility which occurred in 86 (59.7%) of the patients. Among the 144 patients who were examined, 71 (49.3%) of the women had an abnormal finding. Bilateral tubal blockage was the predominant abnormal finding on HSG, found in 27 (18.7%) patients. Right tubal blockage occurred more than left tubal blockage, which was seen in 15 (10.4%) and 13 (9.0%) patients, respectively. Regarding uterine pathology, uterine fibroid occurs most in the women accounting for 11 (7.6%) when compared to uterine adhesions which were found in only 4 (2.7%) women. Conclusion: Even though uterine adhesions were significant findings, bilateral tubal blockage and uterine fibroid were the main HSG findings in AKTH within the study period.
  6,243 4 -
Prevalence of hepatitis a virus and hepatitis e virus in the patients presenting with acute viral hepatitis at a tertiary care hospital Jaipur Rajasthan
Anshu Mittal, Rameshwari Bithu, Nitya Vyas, Rakesh K Maheshwari
July-December 2016, 5(8):47-50
Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a self-limiting viral infection, transmitted by feco-oral route. These infections are major health problem worldwide, with a higher incidence in developing countries. Exposure rate of HAV and HEV over a period are different in different parts of country. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV, its seasonal trend and their correlation with serological markers of liver damage at a tertiary care hospital Jaipur Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A total of 3093 serum samples were tested for IgM HAV and IgM HEV. Relevant data were also collected. Results: A total of 3093 patients were included in the study. Of the 3093, 1654 and 1439 serum samples were tested for IgM HAV and IgM HEV, respectively. Of these, 7.67% and 14.9% were positive for IgM HAV and IgM HEV, respectively. Range of elevated bilirubin in both type of acute hepatitis varied from 1.4 mg% to 37 mg%. In IgM HEV positive patients, bilirubin level was increased in 70.69% cases, whereas aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were elevated in 68.37%, 58.13%, and 31.16% cases, respectively and in IgM HAV positive patients bilirubin level was increased in 57.48% of patients whereas AST (or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), ALT (or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) and ALP levels were elevated in 55.11%, 59.84%, and 42.51% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The best means of reducing the spread of infection is by promoting simple measures of personal and community hygiene. However, these data will be useful for planning of future vaccination strategies and for better sanitation program in country.
  6,207 6 5
Dysmenorrhea and menstrual patterns among adolescent school girls in Kano
Ayyuba Rabiu, Idris Sulaiman Abubakar, Ibrahim Garba
Jan-Jun 2019, 8(13):30-34
Background: Dysmenorrhea is a periodic cramping lower abdominal pain which occurs at menstruation. It could be primary when there is no organic basis and secondary when its due to underlying pelvic pathology. The primary dysmenorrhea frequently begins during adolescence. Abnormal menstrual patterns can also be encountered among adolescent. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the rate of dysmenorrhea and menstrual patterns among adolescent school girls. Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional survey that was carried out among female adolescent girls in three secondary schools at Kano. Approval for the study was obtained from Kano State Ministry of Health. Consent/assent was obtained from all the participants/guardians. Information on dysmenorrhea and menstrual patterns was recorded on a pretested structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS Version 19, Statistics (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean menstrual cycle ± standard deviation was 27.5 ± 8.76 days. Up to 52 (25%) of the adolescent girls have a 28-day menstrual cycle. The average duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 ± 1.51. The amount of blood flow was normal in 177 (81.6%), scanty/light in 21 (9.7%), and heavy in 19 (8.7%) of the adolescent school girls. The menstrual cycle was regular in 194 (89%) adolescent girls. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea and metrorrhagia was 42.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of dysmenorrheal (42.5%) was high in the study. About one-quarter of the adolescent girls had a cycle length of 28 days. The average duration of flow was 4.9 ± 5.1 days with a normal amount of blood flow and regular menses in more than 80% of the adolescent school girls. There was a statistically significant association between heavy menstruation and dysmenorrhea (P < 0.005).
  5,917 6 -
Probiotics and its insinuation in oral health
Apexa B Patel, B Patel Advaita, Baldev V Patel
January-June 2016, 5(7):1-6
For some years now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects in human health. Probiotics are microorganisms, principally bacteria, which confer health benefits beyond basic nutrition when ingested. Probiotics have been studied for their health-promoting effects. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host's immune response. The main field of research has been always focused on the gastrointestinal tract. However, recently, probiotics have also been investigated from an oral health perspective, and their use has shown promising results with respect to control of chronic conditions such as dental caries, periodontitis, halitosis and candidal infections, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and in voice prosthesis. The potential application of probiotics for oral health has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Although only a few clinical studies have been conducted so far. This article summarizes the current status of using probiotics and its insinuation in oral health.
  5,847 4 -
Subepithelial connective tissue graft with coronally advanced flap for the treatment of miller class-III gingival recession; Case report with review of literature
Mohammad Arif Khan, Saket Banchhor, Priyanka , Deepti Chandra, Vijay Krishnan
July-December 2016, 5(8):39-41
Mucogingival surgery involving gingival reconstruction has become an integral part of the current periodontal practice. Gingival recession, either localized or generalized, associated with one or more surfaces, causes clinical and functional problems such as attachment loss, root exposure, poor esthetic, and poor plaque control. This case report describes a clinical case of Miller Class III gingival recession which has been successfully treated by subepithelial connective tissue graft with coronally advanced flap for complete root coverage.
  5,828 11 -
Immunohistochemical evaluation and biological role of stromal myofibroblasts in odontogenic keratocyst, dentigerous cyst, and ameloblastoma: A comparative study
Swati Roy, Satevanthan Hemavathy, Vipul Garg
January-June 2016, 5(7):7-12
Context: Stromal myofibroblasts (MFs) are key cells for connective tissue remodeling and interact with epithelial cells and other connective tissue cells to control phenomena as tumor invasion and angiogenesis thereby contributing to their biological behavior. Aims: The study assesses the frequency of stromal MF in solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), and dentigerous cyst (DC) and relates it to their biological behavior. Settings and Design: Ten cases of each lesion were taken and stained immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) which is a marker for stromal MF. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of SA, OKC, and DC were included in the study. Cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 5) served as the baseline for comparison as they are aggressive lesions expressing increased number of stromal MFs. The frequency of MFs was assessed as the number of α-SMA-positive stromal cells in 10 high-power fields and presented as the mean number of positive cells per field. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in the mean number of α-SMA-positive cell per field among SA, OKC, DC, and SCC were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Results: Counts showed that mean number of α-SMA-positive MFs in SA, OKC, and DC were 24.56 (±4.63), 21.37 (±4.17), and 8.03 (±2.15), respectively. Results showed that the mean number of stromal MFs in SA and OKC was significantly higher than that in DC (8.03 ± 2.15) (P < 0.05). The count of MFs in SA and OKC was not significantly different from that of SCC (25.06 ± 4.61) (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Activated MF participates in the matrix degradation process which is considered to be one of the main forces in tumor growth and invasion. Among odontogenic lesions, ameloblastoma and OKC (presently termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor) are well known for their higher growth and recurrence potential. They tend to show burrowing growth pattern. Various studies have evaluated the epithelial factors responsible for their growth potential; we in our study have tried to relate the emergence of stromal MF to the biological behavior of these lesions. The frequency of stromal MF in OKC and ameloblastoma was almost similar to that in SCC, thereby implying that MF can contribute to the biological behavior of these odontogenic lesions.
  5,783 3 -
Transversus abdominis plane block as an adjuvant in multimodal postoperative analgesia: Relevance and applicability in Nigeria
Hanson Osazuwa Idehen, Charles O Imarengiaye
July-December 2016, 5(8):31-38
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new regional anesthesia technique and very recent in Nigeria. Availability and access to opioids in Nigeria are erratic coupled with its associated side effects; there has been need for alternatives to the use. TAP block has been suggested as an adjunct in multimodal strategy. It provides analgesia mainly for somatic pains for procedures on the anterior abdominal wall excluding visceral pains and therefore may not be too useful as a sole anesthetic technique. TAP block can be instituted using the anatomical (landmark) approach, ultrasound-guided technique, or surgeon's assisted approach. Ultrasound-guided approach is most effective with minimal adverse outcome; wholesale adoption and adaptation would expand the options for balanced anesthesia and pain management. Thus, this article documents the clinical usefulness of TAP block in postoperative pain management so as to encourage the routine use of the technique in Nigeria.
  5,749 0 -
Adequacy of clinical information supplied by clinicians for histopathologic diagnosis: The university of Benin teaching hospital experince
Gerald Dafe Forae, Darlington Ewaen Obaseki
January-June 2017, 6(9):12-15
Background: The volume of workload in histopathology laboratories need to be accurately measured so that resources can be used appropriately in a challenging clinical environment. Aims: The main objective of this work is to assess the adequacy of clinical information provided by clinicians requesting for histopathological investigations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1659 sequential histopathological request forms sent to Department of Histopathology of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 1, and December 31, 2005, were retrospectively studied and analyzed. The provision of data by surgeons and physicians were compared in a Microsoft Excel 2000 Spreadsheet using the Chi-square test with Yates's correction where appropriate. Given the number of variables being assessed, a Bonferonni correction was applied, and a value of P = 0.001 was therefore considered the limit of significance. Results: A total of 1659 pathology request cards were audited in this study. Of these, 1382 cases accounting for 83.3% were a request made by surgeons while 277 constituting 16.7% were a request sent by physicians. Hence, the ratio of a request made by surgeons and physicians were 5:1. Among the request made by surgeons, the most common request was from the Surgery Department accounting for 783 (47.2%) of all requests. Among the 277 requests made by physicians, the department of internal medicine had the highest volume accounting for 122 (7.35%) of all cases. A total of 1415 out of 1659 were found to be inadequately completed accounting for 85.3%. There were significant differences in the information on ethnicity, date, time and clinical summary recorded by surgeons and physicians and the P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the pathology request cards sent by clinicians are inadequately completed with an extremely high preanalytic phase errors.
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Self-perception of body size among adults in Delta State, Nigeria
Ejiroghene Martha Umuerri, Christiana Omotola Ayandele
Jul-Dec 2017, 6(10):45-51
Background: Obesity is a lifestyle disease with enormous public health challenges. Accurate self-perception of body size is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle and a healthy body size. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe self-perception of body size among adults in Delta State, Nigeria, and determine the level of misperception. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory survey of apparently healthy adults living in Delta State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Data on demography, self-perception of body size, and means of assessing body size were reported and documented. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Actual body size was compared with self-perceived body size. Results: About 85% of the respondents reported normal/healthy self-perceived weight while <10% indicated that they were overweight or obese. One-third of respondents misperceived their weight, 24.8% underestimated, while 8.8% overestimated their self-perceived weight using BMI. Female respondents had a higher BMI than males (P < 0.001). Body size defined by BMI was significantly different from self-perceived weight (P < 0.001) with obese females and overweight males having a higher rate of misperception of weight. Urban respondents had a higher rate of misperception than their rural counterparts (P < 0.001). BMI and WC were identified as means of weight assessment in 7.6% and 0.0% of the respondents, respectively. Conclusion: The rate of misperception of weight among adults is high in Delta State, Nigeria, especially among those who were male, overweight, and urban dwellers. Lack of recognition of actual weight status may hinder public health initiatives to effectively deal with obesity.
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