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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 14  |  Page : 45-53

Neurological manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus/Aids

Department of Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. G A Onwuegbuzie
Department of Medicine, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nnjcr.nnjcr_20_19

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Neurologic complications occur in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but only a few of these complications are directly related to HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The virus can affect virtually every aspect of the central and peripheral nervous system, directly or indirectly with the major target being the immune system, including lymphocytes, microglia, and macrophages. Common neurologic manifestations include meningitis, minor and major cognitive impairment, stroke, seizure, immune-mediated effects and opportunistic infection. Diagnosis usually involves a detailed clinical evaluation, including mini-mental scale, as well as lumbar puncture for serology and culture, nerve conduction studies, electromyogram, and neuroimaging. Treatment is usually targeted at the HIV using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and specific disease entities. CNS side effects of HAART may be transient, while others may require withdrawal of the antiretroviral drug.

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